The Belt and Road Initiative

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"Belt and Road" Countries

The Belt and Road Initiative (“Belt and Road”) country list is compiled by the CGCP.[1] One of the principles of the Belt and Road Initiative is its openness to all nations.[2] There is no definite “Belt and Road” country list released by any official Chinese source.[3] Accordingly, the “Belt and Road” country list prepared by the CGCP, last updated in July 2016, is neither official nor exhaustive. A country is included in the list if (1) it is highlighted on the official “Belt and Road” map released by Xinhua Finance Agency[4] or (2) it is covered by at least one official Chinese news outlet under the “Belt and Road” context.  We based our selection on two official sources: Xinhua News Agency and China Central Television (CCTV). Countries marked with an * have been added by the CGCP due to their relevance to B&R CasesTM. The CGCP will continue to update the “Belt and Road” country list as more information becomes available.


Afghanistan | Albania | Algeria | Armenia | Australia | Austria | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Belarus | Belgium | Bhutan | Bosnia and | Herzegovina | Brunei Darussalam | Bulgaria | Cambodia | Comoros | Croatia | Czech Republic | Egypt | Estonia | France* | Georgia | Germany | Greece | Hungary | India | Indonesia | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Italy | Japan* | Jordan | Kazakhstan | Kenya | Kuwait | Kyrgyzstan | Lao People’s Democratic Republic | Latvia | Lebanon | Liberia | Lithuania | Luxembourg | The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia | Malaysia | Maldives | Republic of Moldova | Mongolia | Montenegro | Morocco | Myanmar | Nepal | Netherlands | Nigeria | Oman | Pakistan | Panama* | Philippines | Poland | Portugal | Qatar | Romania | Russian Federation | Saudi Arabia | Serbia | Sierra Leone* | Singapore | Slovakia | Slovenia | Republic of Korea | Spain | Sri Lanka | Sudan | Switzerland | Syrian Arab Republic* | Tajikistan | Thailand | Turkey | Turkmenistan | Ukraine | United Arab Emirates | United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern | Ireland | Uzbekistan | Vietnam | Yemen

The Belt and Road Initiative

Since the first articulation of the vision by President Xi Jinping while visiting Kazakhstan in September 2013, the idea of a modern-day version of the historical Silk Road has intrigued legal practitioners around the world. The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiatives (official English short name: “The Belt and Road”) run across the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, connecting East Asia’s growing markets at one end with Europe’s developed economies at the other, and everything in between.

Confirming the involvement of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in October 2013, China has since reached consensus on the project with multiple countries along the historical route. However, the vision is not limited by geography, as any country interested in the initiatives part of the “Belt and Road” is welcome to participate.

On March 28, 2015, China’s National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Commerce jointly released an action plan on the principles, framework, and cooperation priorities and mechanisms in the Belt and Road Initiative, setting forth the foundation for the initiative that promises to change the face of the world.

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Central Asia beginnings


President Xi Jinping first proposed that China and Central Asia join hands to build a Silk Road economic belt to boost cooperation while on a state visit to Kazakhstan in 2013.

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Laying the foundation


In March 2015, the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Commerce released their "Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road".

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Win-win cooperation


"We will, on the basis of the principles of voluntarism, equality and mutual benefit, join hands to build a win-win cooperation network for the Belt and Road Initiative featuring pragmatism, enterprise, inclusiveness, mutual learning, openness, innovation and common development, and contribute to the revitalization of the global economy." - President Xi Jinping speaking before the Uzbek Supreme Assembly in June 2016

Role of Courts in China

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On June 16, 2015, the Supreme People’s Court issued the Several Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court Concerning Judicial Services and Safeguards Provided by the People’s Courts for the “Belt and Road” Construction to explain the role of China’s courts in the development of the country’s Belt and Road Initiative. Among the sixteen “guiding opinions” (“指导意见”) included in the document, the Supreme People’s Court specifies that all courts in the country:

  • Need to analyze and study in-depth the characteristics and patterns of various cases related to the “Belt and Road” construction, to strengthen judicial interpretations and case guidance, to regulate the exercise of discretion, to unify the application of law, and to provide timely guidance for market activities.
  • Need to establish a sound system for [conducting] specific statistical analyses of cases related to the “Belt and Road” [construction], to release typical cases, and to offer timely judicial suggestions and judicial information to relevant authorities and society so as to effectively prevent legal risks.
  • Need to establish communication and liaison mechanisms with relevant national and local authorities, to study in-depth the rules of international law and the laws and regulations of countries along the [“Belt and Road”] routes, to put forth forward-looking and responsive strategies, and to enhance the overall force for the advancement of the “Belt and Road” construction.

ENDNOTES

[1]             Throughout this website, the CGCP uses the short form of official country names as established by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical names. UNGEGN list of country names, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/UNGEGN/docs/26th-gegn-docs/WP/WP54_UNGEGN%20WG%20Country%20Names%20Document%202011.pdf.

[2]           《推动共建丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路的愿景与行动》(Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road), issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China, with State Council authorization on Mar. 28, 2015, http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease/201503/t20150330_669367.html.

[3]              欧晓理 (OU Xiaoli), “一带一路”建设向所有国家开放 (The “Belt and Road” Construction Is Open to All Nations) 《国务院新闻办公室网》(The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China), July 16, 2015, http://www.scio.gov.cn/ztk/wh/slxy/31200/Document/1441379/1441379.htm.

[4]            《一带一路:丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路》(The Belt and Road: the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road) 《新华财经社》(Xinhua Finance Agency), http://en.xinfinance.com/html/OBAOR/.